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ID number:684182
Published: 29.01.2004.
Language: English
Level: College/University
Literature: 2 units
References: Not used

How civilization of Egyptians appeared?

During the early period of Mesopotamian civilization, the people of another river valley to the west put themselves on the path toward civilization. The Egyptians developed their civilization in the fertile valley of the Nile.
Nature favored Egypt in a number of ways. In addition to water and fertile land, the Nile also provided an excellent transportation link between Upper (southern) and Lower (northern) Egypt. Natural barriers – mountains, deserts, cataracts in the Nile, and the Mediterranean Sea – protected Egypt from attack, allowing the inhabitants to enjoy long periods of peace and prosperity.

About 2900 b.c., a ruler of Upper Egypt, known as Narmer or Menes, conquered the Nile Delta and Lower Egypt. By 2686 b.c., centralized rule had been firmly established and great pyramids, which were tombs for the pharaohs, were being constructed. During this Pyramid Age, or Old Kingdom (2686-2181 b.c.), the essential forms of Egyptian civilization crystallized. From 2181 to 2040 b.c., called the First Intermediate Period, rival families competed for the throne, thus destroying the unity of the Kingdom.

During what is called the Middle Kingdom (2040-1786 b.c.), strong kings reasserted pharaonic rule and reunited the state. With political stability restored, cultural life was reinvigorated and economic activity revived.

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