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ID number:113050
Evaluation:
Published: 02.05.2013.
Language: English
Level: College/University
Literature: n/a
References: Not used
Table of contents
Nr. Chapter  Page.
  Jews in Lithuania – since the beginning of immigration till the holocaust   
  Jews in Estonia   
Extract

JEWS IN LATVIA. 19th CENTURY.
In the end of 19th century almost 140 000 Jews were living in territory of Latvia
Jews played an important role in industry, commerce, and banking before World War I. Also Jews had an important role in export trade in Riga
In Latvia the Reign of Alexander II (1856-1881) was also the most favourable time for Jews
The first features of antisemitism appeared in the end of 18th century
Many Jewish characters in Latvian literature

JEWS IN LATVIA. 20th CENTURY.
Latvian Jewry continued the communal and popular traditions of Russian Jewry, of which it formed a part until 1918.
Before WWI there were about 190,000 Jews in the territories of Latvia, after WWI – almost 80 000
The independent Latvian Republic was established in 1918. The Jewish population was also represented in the Latvian parliament.
At the beginning of 20th century there was an antisemitic view that not enough Jews participate in War of Independence and they do not help Latvians

JEWS IN LATVIA. 20th CENTURY.
After the WWI Jews stimulated and developed commerce. They supported development of liberal market
On May 15, 1934, the prime minister, Karlis Ulmanis, dissolved parliament and Latvia became an autocracy
After 1934, restrictions were placed on the autonomy of minorities

JEWS IN LATVIA. WWII
Total destruction of Jews both inside and outside of occupied Latvia started in 1940 and came to an end only in 1945
Although there was a death penalty for saving Jews, many people risked their lives to save them (e.g. Žanis Lipke). There were more than 500 cases with almost 500 Latvian people who tried to save Jews.
In the Holocaust were killed 90% of Latvia's Jewish population.

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