English Grammar. The Participle
The participle is a non-finite form of the verb which has a verbal and an adjectival or an adverbial character.
In the English language, there are two types of participle:
Participle I- the present participle, also known as the imperfect participle, which is formed by adding the suffix "-ing" to a verb.
Participle II- the past participle, sometimes known as the perfect participle, which is "-ed" form of the verb, and irregular equivalents.
Participle I and Participle II differ morphologically and their syntactical functions are not quite similar.
Verbal character: Participle I of a transitive verb can take a direct object (e.g. Opening the door, he went out). Participle I and Participle II can be modified by an adverb (e.g. Deeply insulted, John decided not to return to this place again).
Adjectival or adverbial character: Functions of attribute (e.g. We were watching the rising sun) and adverbial modifier (e.g. Being very tired, I decided to turn in early yesterday).
Tense & Voice Distinctions
Participle II is unchangeable. It has only one form which is "-ed" form of the verb, and irregular equivalents (e.g. written, pronounced). It expresses the result of an action (quality or state) rather than an action itself. It has no tense or voice distinction. However, Participle II of transitive verbs has a passive meaning (e.g. a broken vase, a coloured picture).…
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