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ID number:703763
Author:
Evaluation:
Published: 02.12.2010.
Language: English
Level: College/University
Literature: 31 units
References: Used
Table of contents
Nr. Chapter  Page.
  ABSTRACT    3
  Aim of paper    3
  Hypotheses    3
  Analytical framework    3
  Main conclusions    3
1.  INTRODUCTION    5
2.  ANALYSIS OF GENOCIDE    6
  Genocide characteristics    6
  Humanitarian intervention    6
  Ignorance of genocide    7
3.  THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL TRIBUNAL FOR RWANDA (ICTR)    8
  Creation of ICTR    8
  Landmark Cases of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda    8
4.  LEGAL, FINANCIAL AND POLITICAL ASPECTS    10
  Evaluation of ICTR    10
  Analytical framework    10
4.1.  LEGAL ASPECT    11
  Significant contribution: law of genocide and international criminal justice (achievement)    11
  Procedural novelty (achievement)    11
  Extension of legal concepts: universal liability, genocide, rape (achievement)    12
  Internal misconduct and administrative proficiency (shortcoming)    12
  Procedural justice. Role of victims. Definition of victim (shortcoming)    13
  Length of trials. Procedural effectiveness (shortcoming)    14
4.2.  FINANCIAL ASPECT    15
  High costs rather than investing in social programs (shortcoming)    15
4.3.  POLITICAL ASPECT    16
  Establishing historical record (achievement)    16
  National reconciliation and maintenance of peace as an aim (achievement)    16
  Need for reconciliation of witnesses is not achieved (shortcoming)    16
  Brouwer de, Anne-Marie (2007): “Sexual Violence against Women during the Genocide in Rwanda and its Aftermath”. http://www.solacem.org/pdf_docs/sexual_violence_of_genocide.pdf, [10.05.2009]    26
  CONCLUSION    18
  Achievements and shortcomings    18
  Suggestions    19
  TABLE 1    20
  Evaluation and suggestions (legal, financial, political aspect)    20
  BIBLIOGRAPHY    21
  ENDNOTES    23
Extract

Population of Rwanda consists of three ethnic groups: Hutus (88%), Tutsis (11%), and Twa pygmies (1%). There are different resources that say how many people died during three month period of the genocide in 1994. Some of them estimate 500 000, another 800 000. However, there is also data more than 1 million people killed. In this paper last data been used. The Rwanda Patriotic Front (led by Tutsi) was victorious and formed a new government. Many refugees (mostly Hutus) moved to neighboring Zaire (approximately 2 million), Tanzania (approximately 480 000), Burundi (approximately 200 000) and Uganda (approximately 10 000). These refugees have concentrated in huge numbers at places with no sanitation, polluted water and less food. These factors have caused great suffering and mass death.i
No other conflict in Africa was so violent in such a short period, in which a million people were massacred. From April to July 1994, extremist political groups organized the massacre not only against the minority Tutsi ethnic group, but also against those from the Hutu majority who were counter the killings or had been active in the pro-democracy movement. The carnage ended when rebel forces of the Rwanda Patriotic Front (hereinafter - RPF) vanquished the genocidal government. Rwanda genocide had significant impact on neighboring regions (Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo): it created political instability and humanitarian crises throughout the Great Lakes region.

In a record of one hundred days characterized with anarchy, Rwanda lost people as a result of ethnic conflicts between the two main ethnic groups of majority Hutu and minority Tutsi. The 1994 tragedy was indeed the climax of a long established political system that was bent on ethnic divisions and political manipulation and suppression of the minority few.
The Rwandan catastrophe was planned for a long period of time. The army (Forces Armee du Rwanda) and Interahamwe militia group went into action, on a destructive behavior of killing, misery, rape, marauding and total destruction. The genocide was characterized by massive destruction of social fabric and physical infrastructure.…

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