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ID number:781270
Published: 08.05.2009.
Language: Russian
Level: College/University
Literature: 15 units
References: Not used
Table of contents
Nr. Chapter  Page.
  Introduction    3
1.  Abbreviation    4
1.1  History    4
1.2.  Style conventions in English    5
1.3.  Conventions followed by publications and newspapers    7
1.4.  Measurement    8
1.5.  Syllabic abbreviation    9
2.  Backronym    10
3.  Аббревиатура    12
4.  Дезаббревиация в английском языке    16
5.  Аббревиатуры в английском подъязыке компьютеров    20
6.  Перевод аббревиаций    22
6.1.  Аббревиация и проблема связи звучания и значения    22
6.2.  Словообразовательные модели английских аббревиатур и сокращений    23
6.3.  Фонетические и графические особенности перевода аббревиатур и сокращений    26
6.4.  Методика расшифровки иностранных сокращений на русском языке    27
7.  Conclusion    30
  References    31
  Appendix    33
1.  Аббревиатуры из Интернет-общения    33
2.  Общепринятые сокращения    35

Abbreviation has been used as long as phonetic script existed, in some senses actually being more common in early literacy, where spelling out a whole word was often avoided, initial letters commonly being used to represent words in specific application. By classical Greece and Rome, the reduction of words to single letters was still normal, but no longer the default.
An increase in literacy has, historically, sometimes spawned a trend toward abbreviation. The standardization of English in the 15th through 17th centuries included such a growth in the use of abbreviation.At first, abbreviations were sometimes represented with various suspension signs, not only periods. For example, specific phoneme sets like "er" were dropped from words and replaced with ɔ, like "mastɔ" instead of "master" or exacɔbate instead of "exacerbate". While this seems trivial, it was symptomatic of an attempt by people manually reproducing academic texts to reduce their copy time. An example from the Oxford University Register, 1503:
Mastɔ subwardenɔ y ɔmēde me to you. And wherɔ y wrot to you the last wyke that y trouyde itt good to differrɔ thelectionɔ ovɔ to quīdenaɔ tinitatis y have be thougħt me synɔ that itt woll be thenɔ a bowte mydsomɔ.
In the 1830s in the United States, starting with Boston, abbreviation became a fad. For example, during the growth of philological linguistic theory in academic Britain, abbreviating became very trendy. The use of abbreviation for the names of "Father of modern etymology" J. R. R. Tolkien and his friend C. S. Lewis, and other members of the Oxford literary group known as the Inklings, are sometimes cited as symptomatic of this. Likewise, a century earlier in Boston, a fad of abbreviation started that swept the United States, with the globally popular term OK generally credited as a remnant of its influence.
After World War II, the British greatly reduced their use of the full stop and other punctuation points after abbreviations in at least semi-formal writing, while the Americans more readily kept such use until more recently, and still maintain it more than Britons. The classic example, considered by their American counterparts quite curious, was the maintenance of the internal comma in a British organization of secret agents called the "Special Operations, Executive" — "S.O.,E" — which is not found in histories written after about 1960.
But before that, many Britons were more scrupulous at maintaining the French form. In French, the period only follows an abbreviation if the last letter in the abbreviation is not the last letter of its antecedent: "M." is the abbreviation for "monsieur" while "Mme" is that for "madame". Like many other cross-channel linguistic acquisitions, many Britons readily took this up and followed this rule themselves, while the Americans took a simpler rule and applied it rigorously.

Аббревиатура (итал. abbreviatura от лат. brevis — краткий). В старинных рукописях и книгах сокращённое написание слова или группы слов. В современных изданиях любое сокращённое слово или словосочетание.

Слово, образованное из названий начальных букв или из начальных звуков слов, входящих в исходное словосочетание
• АСУ — автоматизированная система управления
• ОДУ — обыкновенные дифференциальные уравнения
• ЯОД — язык описания данных

Составлена из алфавитных названий начальных букв слов, образующих исходное словосочетание.
• РСФСР (эр-эс-эф-эс-эр) - Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика
• КГБ (ка-гэ-бэ) - Комитет государственной безопасности
• ТФКП (тэ-эф-ка-пэ) - теория функций компле́ксной переменной

В составе русских буквенных аббревиатур чтение некоторых названий букв может не совпадать с их общепринятыми названиями в алфавите.

Так, буква «Ф» («эф») может произноситься как «фэ»:
• ФБР (фэ-бэ-эр)
• ЛФК (эл-фэ-ка) - лечебная физкультура

Буквы «М» («эм») и «Н» («эн») как «мэ» и «нэ»:
• м.н.с. (мэ-нэ-эс) - младший научный сотрудник

Звуковая (акроним)
Образована из начальных букв слов исходного словосочетания. В отличие от буквенной аббревиатуры, произносится как единое слово («ГУМ» как гум, а не ГеУэМ), а не побуквенно.
• ГЭС - гидроэлектростанция
• ВУЗ - высшее учебное заведение
• ТАСС - Телеграфное агентство Советского Союза

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