Lexicology deals with words.
Study of words, it study their origin, the changes, nature of words, meaning.
Lexicology can be understood in
1.broad meaning -??? lexicology
2.narrow meaning – ???
So, broader understanding of lexicology – study of words, study of dictionaries, of meaning and partially study of style.
Semantics – the study of meanings,
1.general lex. – deals with ,study of words of many languages
2.special lex – deals with one language,
Do you think that there is something common in words in different languages? Is there something common in all words in all languages?
Problem – in different lang., different things are understood differently
What is common to words in general? - in different languages, different things are understood by words. What you understand by w. in English, in other language is not understood as word. There are in which what they consider as word , in Engl. is understand as sentence. There are lang. in which smth. considered a word, in English is used as syllable or sound.
All w. consist of sounds.
Words stand for meanings, words consist of sounds
1. diachronic lex – or historical lex .looks at words- how they words develop in time, in centuries
2.synchronic lex – looks at word as they are today, at present
Up to the 20cent. historical lexicology was studied. It ceners on one word, it looks on a separate word and looks how it has changed ? Descriptive lex or synchronic lex. looks how w. function, looks broader aspects.
Lexicology deals with words.
lexeme – lexical unit, item
Lexeme is unit which has a form and content
form is sound and spelling, the lexeme has sounds, has spelling
content – the meaning and the use
Lexemes are very different e.g. bank – the lexeme, pl. banks – the same lexeme but the variant of lexeme, the banker –is not a variant any more, it is a different lexeme – it has different use, different meaning, form and spelling.
Lexemes can be wards and can be parts of words.
Lexicology consists of one lexeme but it actually consists of 2 lexemes – lexi + logy, logy – another lexeme, part of the word, but it function as a certain lexeme.
To kick the bucket ( nomirt) – one meaning – to die, it consist of several lexemes –kick, the, bucket ,
UK ( United Kingdom – 2 words) – one lexeme.
We have lexemes which has something that they share. The lexical field - of colours – yellow, black, white..., of friendship – father, grandmother..., parts of body, political trends.
All the lexeme together are called - lexican ( US), lexis ( Br.E) ( lexis – words, vocabulary; a total stock of words) You can talk about lexis of a person – all the words that somebody uses. lexis/exican of the times. Lexican – all the vocabulary of the langauge, all the lexemes together.
Lexicology is linked with grammar , first of all because historically anything has to do with morphology... Historically, morphology was a part of a grammar. In Russian, Latvian morphology is still a part of a grammar in school.
Anything to do with sentence – is a grammar, anything to do with words / lexemes– is lexicology.
Bank's pl whould not be a lexicological thing, that is a grammar.
Some words which have all grammatical forms...
e.g. – brother – pl. brothers, brethren - (a normal old standard form – brothers, like child - children) different meanings in pl, so it is a lexicological problem. It has been a grammatical problem , ??it has become lexicological problem – it has changed. ?There are words with different pl meaning – colours, customs,.. They also have the standard plural meaning.
Some words which have the lexical meaning when used grammatically loose it.
e.g. What I do ( is a lex. meaning of the word ''do'') has nothing to do with you ( grammatical meaning), it does not interests me ( ?grammatical m)
e.g. I'm going to do it. going – has nothing to do with ''going'' , going to = will, shall
Lexicology is linked with phonetics. Historically lex. is very much linked with phonetics., because historically there has been huge changes, phonetic changes which are changes in meaning.
e.g. hail, whole, heal – from old English [hælan]
Phonetic use of stresses.
There are some stresses of words which change the meaning of the words. e.g. 'import, im'port – the stress changes whether the word is verb or noun. They develop stress changes which hanges contextual meaning.
e.g. I can't eat anything. – each change has different meaning. A dancing girl. A green house.
Lexicology has much to do with Stylistics.
1.The Vocabulary of a language is a very large layers stylistically. There are high flown words, formal w, neutral w, informal., slang w,.. Different words have different stylistic layer.
2.Words which has .. meaning may have the different meaning contextually, stylistically.
e.g. Oh, God! – it does not have the same meaning as one say Oh, this spiritual...!
She is a great girl. She is just a girl.
Sociolinguistics. – is branch of linguistics which deals with language as used by different classes, groups, sub-groups – criminals, lawyers...
Idialect – is a language of each person, each of us has his own language.
Different groups of people use different vocabulary. People speak different languages in different companies. They speak one lang. home, different one at work, at shop...Most people can adopt.
There are lower, upper class languages. Lower – less developed, less words. Upper – richer, bigger lexically, more borrowing from Latin, generally older, old – fashioned w.
e.g. lavatory ( upper cl), toilette. Glasses, spectacles ( upper cl). Ice ( upper cl), ice-cream . Looking glass ( upper cl), mirror. America ( upper cl), States.
Language and gender – different vocabulary
e.g. It's nice here, isn't it? - women, - men
There is no gender in Engl. People tend to see thing ''white colour '' and opposite.
e.g. spoon and fork ( more masculine) , fork ( more feminine) and knife.
Pragmatics. – part of Linguistics that deals with so called speaker meaning or utterance interpretation.
There are a lot of things which have a different meaning behind it's surface meaning. It depends very much on context. e.g. His work has been very popular. You will get everything you deserve. – depend on context, intonation.
Lexicography. – understanding of lexicology..
It's impossible to define the word.
Word is a basic unit of the language, but we can also say that a sound/ lexeme .... is the basic unit of the language.
e.g. I can't see the sea. – how many words are there? 4,5, or6?
time line, time-line, timeline – one lexeme
līst – one word, one sentence
rains , it rains – it – dummy subject ( no meaning)
Words can have aspects: with one word one aspect is strong , with another, different aspect is strong.
1.orthographic words – written words, they have normally a space, it has normally accepted spelling ..
2.phonological – how you pronounce , pronounced w. ( a notion, an ocean)
3.morphological w – word as being used as bases for other forms – compound, derivatives etc, so, it is form that is used for building other words. morphological suggests that there are morphemes...
4.lexical w – w with lexical meaning, e.g.bank, banks, banking – different motphological variant of the same lexical word.
5.grammatical w – either words without lexical meaning or which loose their lex meaning, when they are used grammatically, small words, articles, conjunctions ...
6.onomastic w – unique term, in most cases – proper names ( Moscow, Churchil..) …
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