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ID number:698973
Published: 29.03.2001.
Language: English
Level: College/University
Literature: 3 units
References: Not used
Table of contents
Nr. Chapter  Page.
  Introduction    3
  Verb tenses    3
  The sequence of tenses    5
  Constructions    5
  Ambivalent constructions    7
  The translation of missing verb    7
  Conclusion    8
  References    8

As says Peter Newmark in his “Textbook of Translation” - “grammar is the skeleton of a text.” (P. Newmark, 1995, “A Textbook of Translation”, p.125), because it gives general facts about a text: statements, questions, comments, reasons, etc.
For translators grammar is important as a transmitter of meaning. And this is domain where can be least cases of similarity. It is, first of all, because of existence of different groups of languages. So translators should pay great attention to those elements of grammar, which don’t have an equivalent in target language.
Translation of verb tenses and verb constructions is very important for maintaining idea and style of text.
Perfect tenses
For translators into Russian difficulty in translation is English perfect tenses, because Russian language don't have such grammatical forms. It can be expressed lexically.
I was there. - 'Я там был'
I have been there- 'Я там побывал'
Compare to Latvian ‘Es tur biju’. ‘Es tur esmu bijis(usi)’.

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