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  • The Case Study of the ERASMUS Programme in Latvia: Stereotypes and European Identity

     

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ID number:928032
Author:
Evaluation:
Published: 26.11.2010.
Language: English
Level: College/University
Literature: 107 units
References: Used
Table of contents
Nr. Chapter  Page.
  INTRODUCTION    1
CHAPTER 1  LITERATURE REVIEW    4
1.1.  Identity    5
1.1.1.  Typology    5
1.1.2.  Collective vs. Individual Identity    6
1.1.3.  Definition    6
1.2.  Concept of European Identity    8
1.2.2.  Political vs. Cultural Identity    9
1.2.3.  National vs. European Identity    10
1.3.  Stereotypes    12
1.3.1.  Stereotypes vs. Prejudices    12
1.3.2.  Typology    14
1.3.3.  Heterostereotypes vs. Autostereotypes    14
CHAPTER 2  METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK    16
2.1.  Survey Methodology    16
2.2.  Questionnaire Design    19
2.3.  Measurement    21
2.3.1.  A Socio-Demographic Data    21
2.3.2.  Indexes    22
2.3.3.  Characteristics    27
CHAPTER 3  ANALYSIS OF SURVEY    28
3.1.  A Socio-Demographic Data    28
3.2.  Indexes    31
3.3.  Characteristics    41
  DISCUSSION    43
  CONCLUSION    46
  APPENDICES    49
  Annex 1    49
  Questionnaire    49
  Annex 2    54
  A Socio-Demographic Data    54
  Annex 3    57
  Analysis of indexes    57
  Annex 4    62
  Characteristics    62
  BIBLIOGRAPHY    65
Extract

Today the ERASMUS Programme is described as one of the symbols of the
construction of the European identity and one of the most successful examples of promoting
European integration. Furthermore, the motto of the ERASMUS Programme exemplifies it:
“bringing students to Europe, bringing Europe to all students” (Nelson & Neack, 2002: 207 in
Oborune, 2009). The programme also contributes to “an ever-closer Union among the peoples
of Europe” and highlights the motto of EU: “unity in diversity”. (Oborune, 2009)
Many political scientists have expressed the significance of studying the influence of
the ERASMUS programme on promotion of European identity. For example, the idea of
studying the effect of student mobility on European integration was initiated by Lijphart
(Lijphart, 1964: 252) but never implemented. Also nowadays several authors (e.g. Wallace,
Jacobs & Maier, Kamphausen, Valentini, Green, Fligstein, Chopin) point to the ERASMUS
programmme as a tool for promoting European identity. But, unfortunately, there is a limited
number of empirical studies done in this field.
Nevertheless, the emergence of research on the ERASMUS programme in the last
years shows the recent interest in studying this field. Corradi (2006) has analyzed the
ERASMUS programme in the historical perspective, Sauzet (2008) has focused on the
pedagogical evaluation of intercultural learning and stereotypes. Van Mol (2009a, 2009b) and
Sigalas (2006, 2009) have both outlined the theoretical framework and researched empirically
the impact of the ERASMUS Programme on the European identitification. Sigalas has studied
British students who have and who have not participated in the ERASMUS programme, as
well students who have studied as ERASMUS students in UK. Contrarily, Van Mol has
studied non-mobile, potential mobile, future mobile and mobile students in sixteen countries.
1
Interestingly, Sigalas came to the conclusion that although it is “widely assumed it
plays a pivotal role in the promotion of a European identity”, the ERASMUS programme
“does not foster a European self-identity or a sense of European pride”. (Sigalas, 2009: 1)
Both Sigalas (2009) and Van Mol (2009b) conclude that European identity feeling is already
present before participation in the ERASMUS programme. I have previously studied the
ERASMUS Programme as promoter of tolerance (Oborune, 2008; Oborune, 2009) but in this
research I have decided to study if Sigalas’s and Van Mol’s conclusion can be proved also in
the case of Latvia. Therefore, I have proposed following thesis statement: the ERASMUS
Programme does not have an impact on promotion of European identity and breaking
stereotypes in students of Latvia who have participated in the ERASMUS Programme.
The research problem of this Master thesis is, whether the ERASMUS porgramme has
impact on stereotypes and European identity. The objective of the present thesis is to analyze
the European self-identification and to research stereotypes of students of Latvia who have
participated/have applied/have not participated in the ERASMUS Programme. …

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