Anglicisms in the Latvian and Russian Languages
|1.||Borrowing as a linguistic process||4|
|1.1.||Types of borrowings||4|
|1.2.||Language contacts and penetration of anglicisms in Latvian and Russian||7|
|2.||Anglicism borrowing in the Latvian and Russian languages||12|
|2.1.||Anglicism borrowing motives and factors||12|
|2.1.1.||Extralinguistic borrowing motives||12|
|2.1.2.||Linguistic borrowing motives||13|
|2.1.3.||Interlinguistic borrowing motives||14|
|2.2.||Levels and features of borrowing process||15|
|2.3.||Anglicisms in language microsystems||16|
|2.4.||Comparative analysis of anglicisms in the Latvian and Russian periodicals||18|
|Appendix 1 List of anglicisms in lexical fields in Latvian||26|
|Appendix 2 List of anglicisms in lexical fields in Russian||29|
Borrowing from other languages is a consistent and natural process. Intercultural relations stimulate language contacts, which result hence in penetration, acquisition and formation of language borrowings.
Among most essential motives for lexical borrowing extralinguistic, linguistic and, as has been exemplified in Latvian, also interlinguistic factors are distinguished. Extralinguistic factors are influenced by political, economical and cultural contacts between nations, as well as by dominant position of one language (in our research – English). Linguistic factors include necessity in denominating new concept or notion, polysemantic distinction between similar notions and lexical meanings, as well as tendency to replace long definitions and collocations with one word. Therefore, all factors listed support the hypothesis driven on borrowing factors and role of Russian as the interlingua between English and Latvian. In a language, borrowing of foreign words over different periods is characterized by variable, yet continuous degree of penetration of borrowing, its adaptation to linguistic norms of the recipient language and further assimilation.
The end of XX – the beginning of XXI century are marked with significant onrush of anglicism formation in both Latvian and Russian languages, including such spheres as economics, politics, business, science and engineering, sports, art and everyday life. Therefore, anglicism-borrowing lexical fields (language microsystems) were distinguished, enlisting examples in both Latvian and Russian. The results show that anglicisms have mainly replenished various groups of terminological lexis of the Latvian and Russian languages.
Dictionaries, articles, as well as two types of periodical sources in Latvian and Russian were analyzed. The results support the hypothesis driven: implementation of anglicisms in printed press is caused by the variety of extralinguistic and linguistic factors; anglicisms in such periodical sources as newspapers belong to informative, i.e. economical, political and sport discourse fields, while magazines preserve diverting style by employing anglicisms from advertising and fashion discourses.
The chosen theme could be of current interest to students of philology, translators, as well as to all who are interested in processes occurring in one’s native language. Current paper could be a valuable asset to further theoretical and practical research of anglicism borrowing process in Latvian and Russian, as well as other languages.
• Borrowing as an act of penetration and acquisition of foreign elements into a recipient language could be classified as phonemic, morphemic, lexical, syntactic and semantic.
• Basic groups of lexical borrowings are loan-words, loan-blends, or hybrid words, and semantic loan translations, or calques.
• Process of borrowing comprises penetration of borrowing to the recipient language, adaptation to language norms and further assimilation.
• Interlinguistic contacts between Latvian and English were facilitated through such interlinguas as Russian or German.
• Extralinguistic factors in anglicism borrowing process by other languages are usually associated with close political, economical, industrial, social and cultural relationships between those language-speaking nations.
• Among linguistic motives of anglicism borrowing are: the necessity to supplement and enrich lexical system of other language with missing elements, tendency to eliminate polysemy in the meaning of a native word and necessity to replace long and impractical in use collocations with one word.
• Significant amount of anglicisms in both Latvian and Russian languages belongs to such spheres as economics, politics, business, science and engineering, sports, arts and everyday life.
• Anglicism borrowing process is facilitated through spoken and written communication, as well as through the influence of mass media.
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