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ID number:766207
Published: 02.01.2013.
Language: English
Level: College/University
Literature: 26 units
References: Used
Table of contents
Nr. Chapter  Page.
  Introduction    3
  Main trends in transformation of armed forces in the Baltic Countries    5
1.  Main trends in transformation of armed forces: Estonia    5
1.1.  Analysis of Estonian Armed Forces: past and present    5
1.2.  Analysis of Estonian Armed Forces: Future priorities, new role and new missions of the Armed forces    6
2.  Main trends in transformation of armed forces in: Latvia    7
2.1.  Analysis of Latvian Armed Forces: past and present    7
2.2.  Analysis of Latvian Armed Forces: Future priorities, new role and new missions of the Armed forces    8
3.  Main trends in transformation of armed forces in: Lithuania    9
3.1.  Analysis of Lithuanian Armed Forces: past and present    9
3.2.  Analysis of Lithuanian Armed Forces: Future priorities, new role and new missions of the Armed forces    10
4.  Comparison    11
4.1.  Comparison of the past military transformation    11
4.2.  Comparison of present military transformation    13
4.3.  Comparison of future challenges and priorities    14
  Conclusions    15
  List of literature    17
  List of abbreviations    18

The proposed hypothesis - Baltic states have used different strategies in transformation of armed forces and that has impact on different future priorities and lack of cooperation between Baltic states – have been proved.
Estonia’s military has transformed into a capable, modernized and experienced. Estonia has gone from an aid recipient to a country that contributes financially and materially far more than is expected for its size. The Estonian Defense Forces have participated in missions abroad, but had to withdraw from NATO-exercises in 2009. In 2007 Estonia was subject to a mass cyber attack by Russian government. Nowadays Estonia has reoriented from territorial protection to niche capabilities. Armed forces have transformed not just acquiring new equipment or training, but rather learning by doing. “Nowadays Estonia invests in upgrading its military, deploys that investment abroad, and assess areas for improvement in order to set higher goals and objectives”. Taking the changing security environment into consideration and according to “Estonian Long Term Defence Development Plan 2009 – 2018” investments to command and control, intelligence, surveillance and communications systems will increase and significantly improve ground-based air defense.
Latvia’s military was the fastest in transformation in Baltic states. Latvia’s membership in NATO and the EU has significantly improved security, but, on the other hand, problems are caused by NATO’s desire to focus on only military transformation. “Latvian combat capabilities cannot use too many personnel due to their relatively small armed forces.” Nowadays, “Latvia is heavily affected by financial crisis. In order to allocate commonly scarce finances for defense, it is vitally important to sort out, optimize and settle properly state‘s defense structure.” Latvia should find more effective finance sources, human sources and using infrastructure, continue optimization of structure of Armed Forces, maximally keeping the number of current personnel but decreasing administrative apparatus, to find possibilities to increase level of social welfare of soldiers and to keep motivation to be involved, to create education institution for specialists involved in state defence.
Lithuania’s military has changed due to international cooperation policy. The Lithuanian Armed Forces troops have participated in UN and NATO peace support operations since 1994, and has become an interoperable NATO force. Learning from mistakes helped to set priorities in defence and adapt to the collective defence thinking and planning, shifting from territorial to collective defence principles. Lithuanian armed forces were changed into postmodern armed forces by changing the structure and military profession, increasing number of women, participating in new military missions and international operations. Nowadays Lithuania’s transformation is directed towards the preparations for state defence and expeditionary warfare. “Lithuania need to aid civilian institutions in case of a terrorist attack in Lithuania, to assist in responding to natural disasters, and to protect objects of national importance.”

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