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ID number:740196
Author:
Evaluation:
Published: 07.05.2020.
Language: English
Level: Secondary school
Literature: n/a
References: Not used
Extract

In conclusion, to sum up the second and the third chapters from “Why nations fail: the origins of power, prosperity, and poverty”, it is empathised how significantly important is creating an institution which produces incentives and opportunities for economic growth development. The authors claim that poor countries are poor not because of their geographies or cultures, or because their leaders do not know which policies will enrich their citizens. Valuable examples are provided of how politics determine what institutions a nation has. The main reason wealthy nations have achieved prosperity is that they have a strong supportive centralized set of institutions, which are called 'inclusive'. These include property safety, a free market, technological growth, and so forth.
Nations Fail because of 'extractive' institutions - those which prevent the products of economic work from directly benefiting the economy as a whole, or unequally distributing it.

Atgriezīsimies pie stāsta par Nogales pilsētu. Kā tas tikai minēts iepriekš, daudzi kultūras aspekti ir vienādi žoga ziemeļos un dienvidos. Tomēr tur var būt dažas noteiktas atšķirības nodarbošanās veidos, normās un vērtībās, lai gan šie nav cēloņi, bet gan iznākums divu vietu atšķirīgajiem attīstības ceļiem. Piemēram, aptaujās Meksikas iedzīvotāji parasti saka, ka viņi uzticas citiem cilvēkiem mazāk, kā Amerikas Savienoto Valstu pilsoņi, uzticas viens otram. Bet tas nav pārsteigums, ka meksikāņiem trūkst ticība, kad viņu valdība nespēj cīnīties ar narkotiku karteļiem vai nodrošināt funkcionējošu un objektīvu legālo sistēmu. Tieši to pašu var attiecināt uz Dienvidkoreju un Ziemeļkoreju, kā tas tiks apspriests nākamajā nodaļā. Dienvidkoreja ir viena no bagātākajām valstīm pasaulē, kamēr Ziemeļkoreja saskarās ar periodisku badu un lielu nabadzību. …

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