Public Administration in Portugal and Latvia: Description and Comparison
Public administration institutions are subordinated to the Cabinet of Ministers. According to the State Administration Structure Law, public administration is organised in a single hierarchical system. No institution or administrative official may remain out of the system. The hierarchy ensures subordination of public administration to people’s will expressed in a democratic way, and the chain of legitimacy (voter – Parliament – Government – administration) also includes the lowest administration level. Public administration institutions are divided into direct and indirect public administration institutions.
Direct administration institutions are all institutions and officials of the Republic of Latvia as the initial public person. They are ministries and other administration institutions directly subordinated to the Cabinet of Ministers, Prime Minister or Minister, as well as institutions that are subordinated to the above-mentioned institutions. Ministries are top-level direct administration institutions that develop state policies and that are directly subordinated to a respective Member of the Cabinet of Ministers.
Indirect administration institutions are local governments and other derived public persons, their bodies and officials. With regard to indirect administration, the focus is laid on autonomy of these institutions.
Main elements of the institutional system of public administration are public administration institutions determined in the legislation, their hierarchy, competence, regulations on their establishment and operation, procedures for preparation and adoption of decisions.
Due to the research described above we can conclude that even being so far away geographically and ethnically Portuguese and Latvian public administration doesn’t differ a lot. Of course there are a lot of sub clauses which may be considered as differences, but the main system of governance due to both, unitary semi-presidential republic and democratic parliamentary republic forms of governmental systems, is quite similar and works according to countries’ specific features, territory, population and economic development level.